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    Monday, January 22, 2018 -- by Xavier Debussche, Stéphane Besançon, Maryvette Balcou-Debussche, Cyril Ferdynus, Hélène Delisle, Laetitia Huiart, Assa T. Sidibe Objectives Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of peer-led self-management education in improving glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes in a low-income country (Mali). Methods We conducted an open-label randomised controlled trial. A total of 151 adults (76% women, mean age 52.5) with type 2 diabetes (HbA1c≥8%), treated in the diabetes consultation units of two secondary health centres in Bamako, were allocated to peer-led structured patient education (n = 76) or conventional care alone (n = 75). The intervention group received 1 year of culturally tailored structured patient education (3 courses of 4 sessions) delivered in the community by five

    Monday, January 22, 2018 -- Two recent large-scale cardiovascular outcome trials, a now common tool in assessing the safety of pharmacological treatments for type 2 diabetes, reported significant reductions in all-cause mortality. In EMPA-REG OUTCOME [BI 10773 (Empagliflozin) Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients], patients who received the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin had a notable reduction of 9.2 deaths per 1,000 per year, while LEADER (Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results—A Long Term Evaluation) found that the patients receiving the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide had a reduction of 3.7 deaths per 1,000 per year. The hypotheses to explain the sizable mortality reduction in EMPA-REG OUTCOME have mainly focused on the potential cardiovascular mechanisms of empagliflozin, but

    Monday, January 22, 2018 -- OBJECTIVE To estimate the cost-effectiveness of the multidisciplinary Risk Assessment and Management Programme–Diabetes Mellitus (RAMP-DM) in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes in comparison with usual primary care in a cohort with 5 years’ follow-up. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a prospective cohort study among 17,140 propensity score–matched participants in RAMP-DM and those under usual primary care. The effectiveness measures were cumulative incidences of complications and all-cause mortality over 5 years. In a bottom-up approach, we estimated the program costs of RAMP-DM and health service utilization from the public health service provider’s perspective. The RAMP-DM program costs included the setup costs, ongoing intervention costs, and central administrative costs. We calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio by dividing the

    Monday, January 22, 2018 -- OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy and safety of once-weekly semaglutide 1.0 mg s.c. with exenatide extended release (ER) 2.0 mg s.c. in subjects with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this phase 3a, open-label, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial, 813 subjects with type 2 diabetes taking oral antidiabetic drugs were randomized (1:1) to semaglutide 1.0 mg or exenatide ER 2.0 mg for 56 weeks. The primary end point was change from baseline in HbA1c at week 56. RESULTS Mean HbA1c (8.3% [67.7 mmol/mol] at baseline) was reduced by 1.5% (16.8 mmol/mol) with semaglutide and 0.9% (10.0 mmol/mol) with exenatide ER (estimated treatment difference vs. exenatide ER [ETD] –0.62% [95% CI –0.80, –0.44] [–6.78 mmol/mol (95% CI –8.70, –4.86)];

    Monday, January 22, 2018 -- OBJECTIVE PANORAMA, a nine-country cross-sectional type 2 diabetes study, investigated factors associated with quality of life (QoL), health status, and other patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Patients were randomly or consecutively selected from primary/secondary care. PROMs included the Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life (ADDQoL) (generic QoL item and average weighted impact [AWI] scores), Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ) (patient- and physician-completed), Hypoglycemia Fear Survey-II worry subscale, and the EuroQoL–5 Dimension visual analog scale (EQ-VAS) measuring patient-reported health. Multivariable linear regression analyses determined predictors of each PROM including patient characteristics, physician-reported adherence, complications, and glycosylated hemoglobin. RESULTS In 5,813 patients, mean PROM scores indicated that generic QoL approximated "good" (0.93); perceived impact of diabetes on QoL

    Monday, January 22, 2018 -- OBJECTIVE Meat intake has been consistently shown to be positively associated with incident type 2 diabetes. Part of that association may be mediated by body iron status, which is influenced by genetic factors. We aimed to test for interactions of genetic and dietary factors influencing body iron status in relation to the risk of incident type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The case-cohort comprised 9,347 case subjects and 12,301 subcohort participants from eight European countries. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected from genome-wide association studies on iron status biomarkers and candidate gene studies. A ferritin-related gene score was constructed. Multiplicative and additive interactions of heme iron and SNPs as well as the gene score were evaluated using Cox

    Monday, January 22, 2018 -- OBJECTIVE Reductions in heart attack and stroke hospitalizations are well documented in the U.S. population with diabetes. We extended trend analyses to other cardiovascular disease (CVD) conditions, including stroke by type, and used four additional years of data. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Using 1998–2014 National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample (NIS) data, we estimated the number of discharges having acute coronary syndrome (ACS) (ICD-9 codes 410–411), cardiac dysrhythmia (427), heart failure (428), hemorrhagic stroke (430–432), or ischemic stroke (433.x1, 434, and 436) as first-listed diagnosis and diabetes (250) as secondary diagnosis. Hospitalization rates for adults aged ≥35 years were calculated using estimates from the population with and the population without diabetes from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and age-adjusted to

    Monday, January 22, 2018 -- OBJECTIVE Short-term studies with automated systems that suspend basal insulin when hypoglycemia is predicted have shown a reduction in hypoglycemia; however, efficacy and safety have not been established in long-term trials. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a 6-month, multicenter, randomized controlled trial in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes using the Medtronic MiniMed 640G pump with Suspend before low (predictive low-glucose management [PLGM]) compared with sensor-augmented pump therapy (SAPT) alone. The primary outcome was percentage time in hypoglycemia with sensor glucose (SG) <3.5 mmol/L (63 mg/dL). RESULTS In an intent-to-treat analysis of 154 subjects, 74 subjects were randomized to SAPT and 80 subjects to PLGM. At baseline, the time with SG <3.5 mmol/L was 3.0% and 2.8%

    Monday, January 22, 2018 -- OBJECTIVE The phenotypic diversity of type 1 diabetes suggests heterogeneous etiopathogenesis. We investigated the relationship of type 2 diabetes–associated transcription factor 7 like 2 (TCF7L2) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with immunologic and metabolic characteristics at type 1 diabetes diagnosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied TrialNet participants with newly diagnosed autoimmune type 1 diabetes with available TCF7L2 rs4506565 and rs7901695 SNP data (n = 810; median age 13.6 years; range 3.3–58.6). We modeled the influence of carrying a TCF7L2 variant (i.e., having 1 or 2 minor alleles) on the number of islet autoantibodies and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)–stimulated C-peptide and glucose measures at diabetes diagnosis. All analyses were adjusted for known confounders. RESULTS The rs4506565 variant was a

    Monday, January 22, 2018 -- OBJECTIVE ITCA 650 (exenatide in osmotic mini-pump) continuously delivers exenatide subcutaneously for 3–6 months. Two doses of ITCA 650 were compared with placebo in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This 39-week, phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial randomized 460 patients aged 18–80 years with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 7.5–10% [58–86 mmol/mol] 1:1:1 to placebo, ITCA 650 40 μg/day, or ITCA 650 60 μg/day. Primary end point was change in HbA1c at 39 weeks. RESULTS Least squares (LS) mean change from baseline HbA1c was –1.1% [–12.2 mmol/mol] and –1.2% [–13.2 mmol/mol] for ITCA 650 40 and 60 μg/day, respectively (P < 0.001 vs. placebo –0.1% [–1.3 mmol/mol]). In a prespecified analysis, greater HbA1c reductions occurred in patients

    Monday, January 22, 2018 -- OBJECTIVE To describe associations between alcoholic liver disease (ALD) or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) hospital admission and cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and mortality in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a retrospective cohort study by using linked population-based routine data from diabetes registry, hospital, cancer, and death records for people aged 40–89 years diagnosed with T2DM in Scotland between 2004 and 2013 who had one or more hospital admission records. Liver disease and outcomes were identified by using ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) from Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusting for key risk factors. RESULTS A total of 134,368 people with T2DM (1,707 with ALD and 1,452

    Monday, January 22, 2018 -- OBJECTIVE Like mutations with loss of function in the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) gene, inhibitors of PCSK9 (PCSK9i) may potentially favor the manifestation of diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A meta-analysis of phase 2/3 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) assessed PCSK9i versus placebo in the primary hypercholesterolemia setting. Statins and ezetimibe were used in 98.4% of these studies and balanced between PCSK9i and placebo. We calculated relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs using random- and fixed-effect models. RESULTS We included 68,123 participants (20 RCTs) with median follow-up of 78 weeks. PCSK9i increased fasting blood glucose (weighted mean difference 1.88 mg/dL [95% CI 0.91–2.68]; I2 = 0%; P < 0.001) and HbA1c (0.032% [0.011–0.050]; I2 = 15.5%; P <

    Monday, January 22, 2018 -- OBJECTIVE Several studies have explored the impact of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) on risk of incident type 2 diabetes. However, the extent to which NAFLD may confer risk of incident diabetes remains uncertain. We performed a meta-analysis of relevant studies to quantify the magnitude of the association between NAFLD and risk of incident diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We collected data using PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science from January 2000 to July 2017. We included only large (n ≥500) observational studies with a follow-up duration of at least 1 year in which NAFLD was diagnosed on imaging methods. Eligible studies were selected according to predefined keywords and clinical outcomes. Data from selected studies were extracted, and meta-analysis

    Monday, January 22, 2018 -- Previous studies demonstrated that brief (3 to 4 min) daily application of light at 670 nm to diabetic rodents inhibited molecular and pathophysiologic processes implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and reversed diabetic macular edema in small numbers of patients studied. Whether or not this therapy would inhibit the neural and vascular lesions that characterize the early stages of the retinopathy was unknown. We administered photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy daily for 8 months to streptozotocin-diabetic mice and assessed effects of PBM on visual function, retinal capillary permeability, and capillary degeneration using published methods. Vitamin D receptor and Cyp24a1 transcripts were quantified by quantitative real-time PCR, and the abundance of c-Kit+ stem cells in blood and retina were assessed.

    Monday, January 22, 2018 -- BNN27, a C17-spiroepoxy derivative of DHEA, was shown to have antiapoptotic properties via mechanisms involving the nerve growth factor receptors (tropomyosin-related kinase A [TrkA]/neurotrophin receptor p75 [p75NTR]). In this study, we examined the effects of BNN27 on neural/glial cell function, apoptosis, and inflammation in the experimental rat streptozotocin (STZ) model of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The ability of BNN27 to activate the TrkA receptor and regulate p75NTR expression was investigated. BNN27 (2,10, and 50 mg/kg i.p. for 7 days) administration 4 weeks post–STZ injection (paradigm A) reversed the diabetes-induced glial activation and loss of function of amacrine cells (brain nitric oxide synthetase/tyrosine hydroxylase expression) and ganglion cell axons via a TrkA receptor (TrkAR)-dependent mechanism. BNN27 activated/phosphorylated the TrkAY490 residue in

    Monday, January 22, 2018 -- Diabetes itself, complications of diabetes, or diabetes treatment may have protective effects on the risk of migraine.

    Monday, January 22, 2018 -- (Natural News) According to a recent study, following a healthy diet and exercising “can be more effective at controlling type-2 diabetes than medication.” Researchers from the University of Glasgow observed 1,500 type-2 diabetes patients who attended a National Health Service (NHS) lifestyle course. They were then compared to a group who did not. Based on their findings, the scientists determined... Read More

    Sunday, January 21, 2018 -- (Natural News) Obesity is a serious health concern that affects more than an individual’s weight. Obese individuals have higher than normal levels of adipose tissue, which manifests in Body Weight (BW) gain. A person’s height and weight is “used to determine the degree of obesity.” To address the issue of obesity, “a multifactorial disease” that... Read More

    Friday, January 19, 2018 -- Overweight and obesity, hypertension, and diabetes are highly prevalent in urban and rural Malawi, yet many patients are undiagnosed and management is limited. Local-evidence-informed multisectoral, innovative, and targeted interventions are needed urgently to manage the already high burden.

    Friday, January 19, 2018 -- A U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety review has resulted in adding warnings to the labels of a specific class of type 2 diabetes medicines called sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors about the risks of too much acid in the blood and of serious urinary tract infections. Both conditions can result in hospitalization.

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