Heart Attack

Also called: MI, Myocardial infarction
अनुवाद: हिन्दी
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Each year over a million people in the U.S. have a heart attack. About half of them die. Many people have permanent heart damage or die because they don't get help immediately. It's important to know the symptoms of a heart attack and call 9-1-1 if someone is having them. Those symptoms include

  • Chest discomfort - pressure, squeezing, or pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Discomfort in the upper body - arms, shoulder, neck, back
  • Nausea, vomiting, dizziness, lightheadedness, sweating

These symptoms can sometimes be different in women.

What exactly is a heart attack? Most heart attacks happen when a clot in the coronary artery blocks the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart. Often this leads to an irregular heartbeat - called an arrhythmia - that causes a severe decrease in the pumping function of the heart. A blockage that is not treated within a few hours causes the affected heart muscle to die.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

Symptoms of Heart Attack

The following features are indicative of Heart Attack:
  • pressure, tightness, pain, squeezing or aching sensation in the chest or arms that may spread to your neck, jaw or back
  • nausea, indigestion, heartburn or abdominal pain
  • shortness of breath
  • cold sweat
  • fatigue
  • lightheadedness or sudden dizziness
It is possible that Heart Attack shows no physical symptoms and still be present in a patient.
References: 1

Common Causes of Heart Attack

The following are the most common causes of Heart Attack:
  • atherosclerosis
  • coronary artery disease
References: 2

Risk Factors of Heart Attack

The following factors may increase the likelihood of Heart Attack:
  • age
  • tobacco
  • high blood cholesterol
  • diabetes
  • obesity
  • stress
  • lack of physical activity
  • illegal drug use
  • history of preeclampsia

Prevention of Heart Attack

Yes, it may be possible to prevent Heart Attack. Prevention may be possible by doing the following:
  • quit smoking
References: 3

Occurrence of Heart Attack

Degree of Occurrence

The following are number of Heart Attack cases seen each year worldwide:
  • Very common > 10 Million cases

Common Age Group

Heart Attack most commonly occurs in the following age group:
  • Aged > 50 years

Common Gender

Heart Attack most commonly occurs in the following gender:
  • Not gender specific
References: 4, 5

Lab Tests and Procedures for Diagnosis of Heart Attack

The following lab tests and procedures are used to detect Heart Attack:
  • Electrocardiogram: To see electrical impulses generated by heart
  • Blood tests: To test for the presence of certain enzymes
  • Chest X-ray:To check the size of heart and its blood vessels
  • Echocardiogram: Provide video images of your heart
  • Coronary catheterization: Reveals the areas of blockage
  • Exercise stress test: To measure how the heart and blood vessels respond to exertion
  • Cardiac computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): To diagnose heart problems
References: 6, 7

Doctor for Diagnosis of Heart Attack

Patients should visit the following specialists if they have symptoms of Heart Attack:
  • Cardiologist

Complications of Heart Attack if Untreated

Yes, Heart Attack causes complications if it is not treated. Below is the list of complications and problems that may arise if Heart Attack is left untreated:
  • abnormal heart rhythms
  • heart failure
  • heart rupture
  • heart valve problems
References: 8

Procedures for Treatment of Heart Attack

The following procedures are used to treat Heart Attack:
  • Coronary angioplasty and stenting: To unblock the artery in your heart
  • Coronary artery bypass surgery: To allow blood flow to the heart to bypass the narrowed section
References: 8

Self-care for Heart Attack

The following self-care actions or lifestyle changes may help in the treatment or management of Heart Attack:
  • Avoid smoking: Helps in improve your heart's health
  • Control your blood pressure and cholesterol levels: Helps in reducing the chances of heart attack
  • Get regular medical checkups: Check for these conditions and help you manage them
  • Exercise regularly: Helps in improving heart muscle function after a heart attack
  • Maintain a healthy weight: Excess weight strains the heart and can contribute to other diseases
  • Eat a heart-healthy diet: Keeps the heart healthy
  • Manage diabetes: Keep blood sugar levels at more-desirable levels
  • Control stress: Reduce stress in your day-to-day activities
References: 8

Alternative Medicine for Treatment of Heart Attack

The following alternate medicine and therapies are known to help in the treatment or management of Heart Attack:
  • Chiropractic therapy: Helps in the stress management during the treatment
  • Deep-breathing exercises and meditation: Helps in dealing with the stress
References: 9

Patient Support for Treatment of Heart Attack

The following actions may help Heart Attack patients:
  • Deal with your emotions: Discuss your fear with your doctor, a family member or a friend may help
  • Support group: Effective in preventing or treating depression after a heart attack
  • Attend cardiac rehabilitation: Helps in lifestyle changes, emotional issues and a gradual return to your normal activities after a heart attack
References: 8

Time for Treatment of Heart Attack

While time-period of treatment for each patient may vary, below is the typical time-period for Heart Attack to resolve if treated properly under an expert supervision:
  • More than 1 year
References: 10

Questions - Heart Attack

News and Updates

Latest news and updates related to Heart Attack. Subscribe to get latest posts via email or subscribe to a RSS feed.

Tuesday, January 16, 2018 -- When diagnosing a heart attack, accuracy and timing are everything. A new test designed to better measure levels of troponin, a protein released when the heart muscle is damaged, could help emergency department physicians provide faster diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Monday, January 15, 2018 -- AbstractObjectives The study investigated whether a dose response exists between myocardial salvage and the depth of therapeutic hypothermia. Background Cardiac protection from mild hypothermia during acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has yielded equivocal clinical trial results. Rapid, deeper hypothermia may improve myocardial salvage. Methods Swine (n = 24) undergoing AMI were assigned to 3 reperfusion groups: normothermia (38°C) and mild (35°C) and moderate (32°C) hypothermia. One-hour anterior myocardial ischemia was followed by rapid endovascular cooling to target reperfusion temperature. Cooling began 30 min before reperfusion. Target temperature was reached before reperfusion and was maintained for 60 min. Infarct size (IS) was assessed on day 6 using cardiac magnetic resonance, triphenyl tetrazolium chloride, and histopathology. Results Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride area at risk

Monday, January 15, 2018 -- AbstractBackground The local inflammatory tissue response after acute myocardial infarction (MI) determines subsequent healing. Systemic interaction may induce neuroinflammation as a precursor to neurodegeneration. Objectives This study sought to assess the influence of MI on cardiac and brain inflammation using noninvasive positron emission tomography (PET) of the heart-brain axis. Methods After coronary artery ligation or sham surgery, mice (n = 49) underwent serial whole-body PET imaging of the mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO) as a marker of activated macrophages and microglia. Patients after acute MI (n = 3) were also compared to healthy controls (n = 9). Results Infarct mice exhibited elevated myocardial TSPO signal at 1 week versus sham (percent injected dose per gram: 8.0 ± 1.6 vs. 4.8 ± 0.9; p < 0.001), localized to activated

Saturday, January 13, 2018 -- Cardiologists at the Catharina hospital in Eindhoven have succeeded in the localized cooling of the heart during a heart attack, a world first. By cooling part of the heart prior to and following angioplasty, the cardiologists believe that the damage from a heart attack can be limited.

Friday, January 12, 2018 -- The president of the American Heart Association, Dr John Warner, had a minor heart attack recently during a scientific conference held in California.

Demographic Information - Heart Attack

Following is the demographic information reported by website visitors for Heart Attack. Information below may include patient demographics as well as data for website visitors who might be researching on behalf of patients e.g. parents for small children. The data below may or may not be reflective of the complete patient population demographics for this medicine/health topic.
18 out of 23 users are male.
Users Percentile
Participants: 23
The most common user is 50+ years old.
Users Percentile
< 211
Participants: 23
Marital Status
No data has been collected for this survey
Users most commonly suffer from Heart attack.
Users Percentile
Heart attack4
High blood pressure4
Back pain2
Coronary heart disease2
Other heart disease1
Participants: 15
Body Weight
4 out of 22 users report that they are overweight.
Users Percentile
Not overweight18
Participants: 22
Smoking Habit
20 out of 26 users report that they do not smoke.
Users Percentile
Do not smoke20
Participants: 26
Alcohol Consumption Frequency
Users most commonly reported never consuming alcohol
Users Percentile
One drink a day3
Two drinks a day0
More than two drinks a day2
Once a week2
Twice a week0
Once a month4
Participants: 23
14 out of 23 users report that they had significant pain in the last 3 months.
Users Percentile
Significant pain in the last 3 months14
No significant pain in the last 3 months9
Participants: 23
Doctor is the most common profession reported by users.
Users Percentile
Engineer, IT or Software2
Government service2
Participants: 17
Routine Health Check-ups
1 out of 1 users report that they receive routine health check-ups or physical examinations.
Users Percentile
Yes, receive routine health check-ups or physical examinations1
No, do not receive routine health check-ups or physical examinations0
Participants: 1
Missed Health Checkup Reason
No data has been collected for this survey
No data has been collected for this survey
1 out of 1 users report that they are have received immunization.
Users Percentile
Yes, received immunization1
No, not received immunization0
Participants: 1
No data has been collected for this survey
Exercise Frequency
Users most commonly exercise once a week.
Users Percentile
Once a week11
Twice a week0
Five times a week0
Participants: 18
Exercise Duration
No data has been collected for this survey
Like Exercising
No data has been collected for this survey
Difficulties in Exercising
No data has been collected for this survey
Fruits and Vegetables
Users most commonly report that they eat fruits and vegetables 'Everyday'.
Users Percentile
Participants: 1
Healthy Food Choices
Users most commonly report that they make a healthy food choice 'Most of the time'.
Users Percentile
Most of the time1
Participants: 1
Eating Out
No data has been collected for this survey
Fast Food Frequency
No data has been collected for this survey
Special Diet
0 out of 1 users report that they are on a special diet.
Users Percentile
Yes, on a special diet0
No, not on a special diet1
Participants: 1
Housing Type
No data has been collected for this survey
Own Home
No data has been collected for this survey
Non-emergency Visits
Users most commonly report that they go to 'Doctor's Clinic' for their non-emergency health issues.
Users Percentile
Doctor's Clinic1
Participants: 1
Medicine Source
Users most commonly report to buy medicine from 'Doctor's office'.
Users Percentile
Doctor's office1
Participants: 1


  1. MAYO CLINIC Heart Attack - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
  2. MAYO CLINIC Heart attack - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
  3. MAYO CLINIC Heart attack - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
  4. CDC Heart attack - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
  5. Bui AL, Horwich TB, Fonarow GC. Epidemiology and risk profile of heart failure. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2011;8(1):30-41. - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
  6. MAYO CLINIC Heart attack - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
  7. MAYO CLINIC Heart attack - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
  8. MAYO CLINIC Heart attack - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
  9. Rabito MJ, Kaye AD. Complementary and alternative medicine and cardiovascular disease: an evidence-based review. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:672097. - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
  10. NIH How Is a Heart Attack Treated? - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
  11. Source:

Last updated date

This page was last updated on 1/18/2018.
This page provides information for Heart Attack in English.

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