Also called: Carcinoma, Malignancy, Neoplasms, Tumor
    अनुवाद: हिन्दी
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    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms new cells as you need them, replacing old cells that die. Sometimes this process goes wrong. New cells grow even when you don't need them, and old cells don't die when they should. These extra cells can form a mass called a tumor. Tumors can be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors can invade nearby tissues. They can also break away and spread to other parts of the body.

    Cancer is not just one disease but many diseases. There are more than 100 different types of cancer. Most cancers are named for where they start. For example, lung cancer starts in the lung, and breast cancer starts in the breast. The spread of cancer from one part of the body to another is called metastasis. Symptoms and treatment depend on the cancer type and how advanced it is. Most treatment plans may include surgery, radiation and/or chemotherapy. Some may involve hormone therapy, biologic therapy, or stem cell transplantation.

    NIH: National Cancer Institute

    Symptoms of Cancer

    The following features are indicative of Cancer:
    • unintentional weight loss
    • fever
    • excessive fatigue
    • changes to the skin
    • pneumonia
    • difficulty in swallowing
    • narrowing in the bowel
    • coughing up blood
    It is possible that Cancer shows no physical symptoms and still be present in a patient.
    References: 1

    Common Causes of Cancer

    The following are the most common causes of Cancer:
    • exposure to chemicals
    • exposure to ionizing radiation
    • exposure to non-ionizing ultraviolet radiation
    • heredity
    • some hormones imbalance
    References: 1

    Risk Factors of Cancer

    The following factors may increase the likelihood of Cancer:
    • increasing age
    • physical inactivity
    • bacterial infection
    • passive smoking
    • inherited mutations in the genes BRCA1 and BRCA2
    • environmental factors

    Prevention of Cancer

    Yes, it may be possible to prevent Cancer. Prevention may be possible by doing the following:
    • do not use tobacco
    • control excess weight
    • be physically active
    • do not drink alcohol
    • prevent yourself from sexually transmitted infections
    • avoid air pollution
    References: 2

    Occurrence of Cancer

    Degree of Occurrence

    The following are number of Cancer cases seen each year worldwide:
    • Very common > 10 Million cases

    Common Age Group

    Cancer most commonly occurs in the following age group:
    • Can happen at any age

    Common Gender

    Cancer most commonly occurs in the following gender:
    • Not gender specific
    References: 3, 4

    Lab Tests and Procedures for Diagnosis of Cancer

    The following lab tests and procedures are used to detect Cancer:
    • Blood tests: To examine the physiological and biochemical states
    • CT scans: To create detailed pictures of areas inside the body
    • Endoscopy: To examine the interior of a hollow organ
    • Cytogenetics: To identify information about molecular changes
    • Immunohistochemistry: To analyse information about molecular changes
    References: 5

    Doctor for Diagnosis of Cancer

    Patients should visit the following specialists if they have symptoms of Cancer:
    • Anesthesiologist
    • Dermatologist
    • Dietitian
    • Dosimetrist
    • Endocrinologist
    • Enterostomal therapist
    • Gastroenterologist
    • Gynecologist
    • Hematologist
    • Medical oncologist
    • Neonatologist
    • Nephrologist
    • Neurosurgeon
    • Oncologist
    • Palliative care specialists
    • Pediatric oncologist
    • Physical therapist
    • Psychiatrist
    • Psychologist
    • Radiation oncologist
    • Surgical oncologist

    Complications of Cancer if Untreated

    Yes, Cancer causes complications if it is not treated. Below is the list of complications and problems that may arise if Cancer is left untreated:
    • may be fatal
    References: 6

    Procedures for Treatment of Cancer

    The following procedures are used to treat Cancer:
    • Surgery: Removes the affected organ before cancer spread to other part
    • Radiation therapy: Damage the cancer cells
    • Chemotherapy: Helps in inhibiting the cancer growth
    • Stem cell transplant: Replaces the diseased bone marrow
    • Immunotherapy: Uses the body's immune system to fight against cancer
    • Hormone therapy: Removing some hormones from the body may cause the cancer cells to stop growing
    References: 7, 8

    Self-care for Cancer

    The following self-care actions or lifestyle changes may help in the treatment or management of Cancer:
    • Stop smoking: Stopping smoking will reduce the risk of cancer in the future
    • Avoid excessive sun exposure: Reduces the risk of skin cancer
    • Eat a healthy diet: Choose a diet rich in whole grains, lean proteins, fruits and vegetables
    • Exercise: Regular exercise is linked to a lower risk of cancer
    • Alcohol Consumption: Drink alcohol in moderation
    References: 9

    Alternative Medicine for Treatment of Cancer

    The following alternate medicine and therapies are known to help in the treatment or management of Cancer:
    • Acupuncture: Helpful in pain management
    • Massage: Reduces pain, nausea, fatigue and depression caused due to cancer
    • Yoga: Reduces emotional strain during treatment
    References: 10

    Patient Support for Treatment of Cancer

    The following actions may help Cancer patients:
    • Learn about cancer: Helpful in making treatment decisions
    • Keep friends and family close: Keeping your close relationships gives you emotional support
    References: 11

    Time for Treatment of Cancer

    While time-period of treatment for each patient may vary, below is the typical time-period for Cancer to resolve if treated properly under an expert supervision:
    • More than 1 year
    References: 12

    Questions - Cancer

    Demographic Information - Cancer

    Following is the demographic information reported by website visitors for Cancer. Information below may include patient demographics as well as data for website visitors who might be researching on behalf of patients e.g. parents for small children. The data below may or may not be reflective of the complete patient population demographics for this medicine/health topic.
    25 out of 37 users are male.
    Users Percentile
    Participants: 37
    The most common user is 30-40 years old.
    Users Percentile
    < 212
    Participants: 23
    Marital Status
    Users most commonly report that they are 'Single, never married'.
    Users Percentile
    Single, never married1
    Married or domestic partnership1
    Participants: 2
    Users most commonly suffer from Prostate cancer.
    Users Percentile
    Prostate cancer3
    Sexually transmitted disease (STD)2
    Breast cancer2
    Skin cancer2
    Back pain1
    Participants: 14
    Body Weight
    7 out of 26 users report that they are overweight.
    Users Percentile
    Not overweight19
    Participants: 26
    Smoking Habit
    18 out of 25 users report that they do not smoke.
    Users Percentile
    Do not smoke18
    Participants: 25
    Alcohol Consumption Frequency
    Users most commonly reported never consuming alcohol
    Users Percentile
    One drink a day0
    Two drinks a day0
    More than two drinks a day2
    Once a week4
    Twice a week0
    Once a month4
    Participants: 21
    13 out of 22 users report that they had significant pain in the last 3 months.
    Users Percentile
    Significant pain in the last 3 months13
    No significant pain in the last 3 months9
    Participants: 22
    Engineer, IT or Software is the most common profession reported by users.
    Users Percentile
    Engineer, IT or Software3
    Family business2
    House Maker2
    Participants: 18
    Routine Health Check-ups
    1 out of 2 users report that they receive routine health check-ups or physical examinations.
    Users Percentile
    Yes, receive routine health check-ups or physical examinations1
    No, do not receive routine health check-ups or physical examinations1
    Participants: 2
    Missed Health Checkup Reason
    'I am not able to afford the payment' is the most commonly reported reason for not receiving routine health checkups.
    Users Percentile
    I am not able to afford the payment1
    Participants: 1
    1 out of 3 users report that they are taking more than one medicine on regular basis.
    Users Percentile
    Yes, taking more than one medicine on regular basis1
    No, not on taking more than one medicine on regular basis2
    Participants: 3
    1 out of 4 users report that they are have received immunization.
    Users Percentile
    Yes, received immunization1
    No, not received immunization3
    Participants: 4
    1 out of 2 users report that they take vitamins or herbal supplements.
    Users Percentile
    Yes, taking supplements1
    No, not taking supplements1
    Participants: 2
    Exercise Frequency
    Users most commonly exercise once a week.
    Users Percentile
    Once a week9
    Twice a week3
    Five times a week1
    Participants: 22
    Exercise Duration
    No data has been collected for this survey
    Like Exercising
    No data has been collected for this survey
    Difficulties in Exercising
    No data has been collected for this survey
    Fruits and Vegetables
    Users most commonly report that they eat fruits and vegetables '1-3 times per week'.
    Users Percentile
    1-3 times per week1
    Participants: 1
    Healthy Food Choices
    Users most commonly report that they make a healthy food choice 'Always'.
    Users Percentile
    Participants: 2
    Eating Out
    Users most commonly report to eat out 'Every other day'.
    Users Percentile
    Every other day1
    Participants: 1
    Fast Food Frequency
    Users most commonly report that they eat fast food '1-3 times per month'.
    Users Percentile
    1-3 times per month1
    1-3 times per week1
    Participants: 2
    Special Diet
    0 out of 3 users report that they are on a special diet.
    Users Percentile
    Yes, on a special diet0
    No, not on a special diet3
    Participants: 3
    Housing Type
    Users most commonly report that they live in a 'House'.
    Users Percentile
    Participants: 2
    Own Home
    1 out of 2 users report that they own a home.
    Users Percentile
    Yes, own a home1
    No, do not own a home1
    Participants: 2
    Non-emergency Visits
    Users most commonly report that they go to 'Doctor's Clinic' for their non-emergency health issues.
    Users Percentile
    Doctor's Clinic1
    Participants: 2
    Medicine Source
    Users most commonly report to buy medicine from 'Local pharmacy'.
    Users Percentile
    Local pharmacy2
    Participants: 2


    1. Wikipedia Cancer - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
    2. Wikipedia Cancer - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
    3. National Cancer Institute Cancer Statistics - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
    4. Ahmedin Jemal, Freddie Bray, Melissa M.Center, Jacques Ferlay, Elizabeth Ward, David Forman Global cancer statistics - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
    5. American Cancer Society Health Professionals Associated With Cancer Care - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
    6. Esserman LJ, Thompson IM, Reid B, et al. Addressing overdiagnosis and overtreatment in cancer: a prescription for change. Lancet Oncol. 2014;15(6):e234-42.a - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
    7. American Cancer Society Can Childhood Cancers Be Prevented? - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
    8. Mayo Clinic Cancer Treatments and drugs - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
    9. Mayo clinic Cancer Prevention - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
    10. Mayo Clinic Cancer Alternative medicine - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
    11. Mayo Clinic Cancer Coping and support - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
    12. Wikipedia Treatment of cancer - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
    13. Source:

    Last updated date

    This page was last updated on 2/18/2018.
    This page provides information for Cancer in English.

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